Committee Reports::Report No. 05 - Development Education::30 October, 1986::Appendix


L.H. Geography 1982




The structure of the external trade of a developing country and a developed country is shown in the diagram below. Describe and explain the differences between the two countries. (30 marks).



The amount and nature of a country’s foreign trade is also affected by factors other than its stage of economic development. State three of these other factors and what their effects are. (30 marks).



How can international trade and aid contribute to improving the economic conditions of the developing countries and what are the major problems involved? (40 marks).

L.H. Geography 1983




Give a reasoned explanation of the immediate and long-term consequences that might result from the failure of the countries of the developed world to provide aid to the underdeveloped countries. (40 marks).



What in your opinion should be the ideal role of the following bodies in the economic and social development of underdeveloped countries?

National Governments of developed countries: Non-government Agencies (NGO’s); Multinational Corporations. (60 marks).


(a)Figures provided in the World Development Report 1980 (The World Bank, Washington, 1980) would seem to indicate that in the year 2000 AD (less than twenty years away) for approximately one third of the world’s people, literacy will not surpass 50 per cent, life expectancy will only just exceed 50 years and infant mortality rates will not fall below 100 deaths per thousand live births.

(i)Explain how literacy, life expectancy rates and infant mortality rates are relevant issues to the poorest of developing countries. (40 marks).

(ii)Outline the principal problems associated with the provisions of foreign aid to underdeveloped countries. (60 marks).

L.H. Geography 1984

3. SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY 3(a), 3(b)

(a)The flow chart below illustrates the movement from a nomadic lifestyle to one commercial farming. The diagram also shows some of the factors which influence this development. Study the diagram carefully and answer the questions which follow.

Answer the following questions based on the diagram:

(i)“Nomadic lifestyles have largely disappeared as more and more nomadic peoples have succumbed to modern influences”. Discuss, with reference to at least one nomadic people you have studied. (35 marks).

(ii)Explain why subsistence farming is closely linked with poverty. (30 marks).

(iii)“A massive injection of capital and large-scale mechanisation in agriculture are in themselves totally inadequate answers to the task of developing subsistence farming”. Discuss with reference to concrete examples. (35 marks).

(b)Foreign aid to developing countries may come from three main sources:

Multilateral Agencies (e.g. United Nations Organisations), Bilateral Aid Programmes (e.g. Ireland and Lesotho) and Voluntary Organisations (e.g. Trocaire).

(i)Briefly explain the distinctions between the three. In your answer you should refer to examples other than those given, or at least develop the examples given. (35 marks).

(ii)Outline the major needs of Developing Countries. (30 marks).

(iii)With reference to the needs outlined, discuss the view that foreign aid is not always suited to the needs of Developing Countries. (35 marks).




What do you understand by the term “World Food Supply Problem”? (20 marks).



World food production could be increased by an extension of farmland in the world. Regions in which new farmland might be developed include: Equatorial, Savanna, Hot Desert and Humid Temperate Lands.

Choose two of these regions and discuss the extent to which food supply might be increased in each. (50 marks).



Apart from an extension of farmland, name and explain three other ways in which world food supply might be improved. (30 marks).

L.H. Geography 1985

3. SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY 3(b), 3(c)


Examine the map above, which shows the prehistoric distribution of major human ethnic groups.

(i)Identify TWO ways in which today’s world differs from that represented on the map. In EACH case, explain how change has come about. (50 marks).

(ii)With reference to specific regions, examine TWO important consequences of the existence in the modern world of multi-ethnic societies. (50 marks).

(c)It has been said that the World Food Problem is one of unequal distribution rather than insufficient production of food.

(i)Explain, using the following headings, how economic patterns within Developing Countries themselves may contribute to the Problem: over-concentration on cash crops; unequal landholding systems; attempts to remodel farming along inappropriate Western lines. (75 marks).

(ii)Examine briefly the extent to which Developed Countries have contributed to the Food Problem through their emphasis on Short-term Food Aid policies. (25 marks).